Type-2 Diabetes is due to the body’s insulin resistance or reduced insulin sensitivity. In this condition, insulin is produced by beta cells in Islets of Langerhans of pancreas, but inefficient production or inefficient utilization of insulin occurs. This is characterized by peripheral resistance to insulin, increased glucose production by the liver or due to alteration of insulin secretion by the pancreas. The body tissues are unable to respond to insulin, produced in the body, in an effective manner. This causes a considerable rise in the glucose levels of the suffering individual.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with hyperglycemia, which may occur due to ghicose accumulation in the bloodstream and hyperinsulinemia. Besides these, excessive production of insulin is found as elevated blood glucose levels trigger the insulin production by beta cells of pancreas. The patients also have a group of disorders called “insulin resistance syndrome” or syndrome X. This Type-2 Diabetes is most often associated to high cholesterol levels, obesity, and high blood pressure. This condition is commonly diagnosed in adulthood. As a consequence of this, this condition is traditionally termed as adult-onset diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes is the most commonly prevalent type of diabetes, among all the other types of Diabetes. Medically, this type of diabetes is also referred to as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). The reason for this classification is the fact that insulin can be used as a part of the treatment but is not an essential day to day requirement for diabetics suffering from this disorder. In the Type-2 Diabetes, elevated levels of insulin in the bloodstream are found. This can be attributed to reduced insulin sensitivity. This condition can be monitored and controlled at an early stage by making active changes in lifestyle and the use of medication.
Type-2 Diabetes is also referred to as obesity – related diabetes. The reason for this inference is the fact that obesity is one of the most common potential factors that lead to Diabetes of this type. A proof of this feet is that approximately 55% of patients with obesity are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Obesity, in this case, is primarily due to physical inactivity and an increased intake of calories and thus can be attributed to an unhealthy lifestyle. The Type-2 Diabetes, induced by lifestyle factors, is most often diagnosed in teens and young adults.
A group of hormones called Adipokines are secreted by the abdominal fat. These hormones are known to impair glucose tolerance. This type of Diabetes may be caused due to an array of other factors. These include aging and hereditary factors. Approximately 20% of elderly patients in North America suffer with diabetes. Moreover, individuals with a blood pressure of 140/90 or higher and HDL cholesterol of 35 or triglycerides level of 250 or higher are also likely to develop Type-2 Diabetes. Besides the above mentioned, individuals with gestational diabetes may also be prone to Type-2 Diabetes.