Diabetes may also be caused by several other individual specific reasons. These reasons include genetic disorders, injuries to the pancreas, pancreatic diseases, infections, and endocrine diseases. All these specific types or forms of diabetes will be dealt with in this section.
- Congenital Diabetes is caused due to genetic defects in system responsible for insulin secretion.
- Steroid Diabetes is induced by high doses of a class of steroid hormones called Glucocorticoids.
- Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes is caused by any disease similar to pancreatitis that is capable of causing extensive damage to the pancreas. Toxins damage the insulin producing beta cells of pancreas. Moreover, there are several drugs that may impair insulin secretion.
- Malnutrition-Related Diabetes Mellitus (MRDM or MMDM) is an ICD-10 diagnostic entity that was deprecated by the World Health Organization
- Maternally Inherited Diabetes and Deafness (MIDD) are an extremely rare genetic insulin secretion disorder. This is caused by changes in the DNA of the mitochondria. The mitochondria are the only part of the cell to contain
DNA other than the nucleus, and are the energy powerhouses of the cell. MIDD is maternally inherited because the fertilized egg has only mitochondria derived from the mother. Maternally inherited diabetes exhibit deafness or a mild hearing loss. MIDD’s clinical features are similar to type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Diabetes (FPLD) is a rare condition in which children develop an unusual fat distribution at puberty. In this condition, the children are with little or no fat on their arms, legs, and trunk. They also develop insulin-resistant diabetes (Type – 2 diabetes mellitus). This diabetes is caused by mutations or changes in the gene called lamin A/C, which is present on chromosome l. This is an autosomal dominant condition.
Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophic (CGL) Diabetes is a rare form of lipodystrophy diabetes. Lipodystrophy is a condition that is characterized by abnormalities in metabolism. It is an autosomal recessive condition. However, in some cases it may be caused by mutations or changes in a gene called seipin gene, which is present on chromosome 11.
Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (TNDM) is a condition in which children while in their infancy, require insulin injections but later on are able to produce sufficient insulin. However, in the later stages of life, they have a higher chance of developing diabetes. It is caused due the inheritance of an extra copy of a region of chromosome 6 from the father.
Diabetes mellitus caused by the diseases associated with excessive secretion of insulin antagonistic hormones.
There are some specific disorders that are also associated with diabetes mellitus, which are as follows:
Wolfram Syndrome is a condition which is characterized by a combination of diabetes, deafness and deficiency of antidiuretic hormone. It is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is commonly prevalent in children. It is caused due to mutations or changes in a gene called the wolframin gene, which is present on
- Thiamine-Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia Syndrome (TRMA) is a rare autosomal recessive childhood condition. It includes diabetes, which occurs in conjunction with blood abnormalities and deafness. It is caused due to mutations or changes in the thiamine transporter gene SLC19A2, on chromosome 1. Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome responds to treatment with thiamine, a form of vitamin B.
- Another group of rare genetic diabetes types is found. This condition is characterized by extreme insulin resistance. Disorders caused by extreme insulin resistance include Type – A syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome and leprechaunism. These conditions are caused by hereditary defects in the gene on chromosome 19 that makes the insulin receptor, a protein that allows cells to respond to insulin.